The origins of the EU- a vision of a federal Europe,
and French occupation of German territory.
Jean Monnet - Senior Civil Servant and Banker.
The creation of a Federation of European states, which has been the
stated intention of the EU from the outset, was the brain-child of
Jean Monnet and Arthur Lord Sadler in the 1920s, and Monnet was
its first Commissioner, (the Commision was then called the High
Jean Monnet was a talented and able civil servant who had been the
Deputy Sec. General of the League of Nations. He left this and
became a high finance banker, his company having links with
Wallenberg, Bosch, Rockerfeller and J.F Dulles.
He said “The countries of Europe are too small to guarantee their
peoples the necessary prosperity and social development. The
European states must constitute themselves into a
federation..." (Monnet 1943).
Already then they envisioned the 4 elements; the Commission, The
Council Of Ministers, The 'Parliament' and The European Court.
It was never seen as a democratic system, but it was always a
Federation of States. That was its purpose.
Stage one;The European Coal and Steel Community - EU
Born from France taking German coal.
Monnet's ideas were first put into practise when following World War
II, France was in severe need of reconstruction and completely
dependent on coal from Germany's main remaining coal-mining
areas, the Ruhr and Saar areas.
In 1945 Monnet proposed France taking control of the German coal-
producing areas and redirecting the production away from the
German industry and into the French, thus permanently weakening
Germany and raising the French economy considerably above its pre-
war levels. The plan was adopted by Charles de Gaulle in early 1946.
This is almost identical to the occupation of the Ruhr by France in
1923 that had been one of the causes of the 2nd World War.
France Invades Germany 1947
In 1947 France removed the Saar from Germany, with U.S. support,
and turned it into the Saar Protectorate which was under French
political and economic control.
"The United States does not feel that it can deny to France, which
has been invaded three times by Germany in 70 years, its claim to
the Saar territory". (James Byrnes US Sec of State).
The people of the Saar were eventually stripped of their German
nationality, and pro-German parties were banned from elections. Its
industries were dismantled, despite urgings against the policy by the
British foregin minister Ernest Bevin.
The area didn't return to German political administration until 1957
(economic reunification would take many years longer)and France
retained the right to mine from its coal mines until 1981.
The Ruhr Agreement was imposed on the Germans as a condition for
permitting them to establish the Federal Republic of Germany. The
International Authority of the Ruhr controlled production levels,
pricing and the sales markets, thus ensuring that France received a
considerable portion of the Ruhr coal production at low prices.
Tensions Over French Confiscation Of German Coal.
When tensions between France and Germany rose over the control of
the then vital coal and steel industries, Monnet and his associates
conceived the idea of a “European Community”.
Germany 'agrees' to joint French- German control of their
coal fields, in exchange for an end to the dismantling of its
On 9 May 1950, with the agreement of Chancellor Adenauer of West
Germany, French Minister of Foreign Affairs Robert Schuman made
a declaration in the name of the French government. This
declaration, prepared by Monnet for Schuman, proposed integration
of the French and German coal and steel industries under joint
control, under a so-called High Authority (which later grew into the
EU Commission) open to the other countries of Europe. Schuman
"Through the consolidation of basic production and the institution of
a new High Authority, whose decisions will bind France, Germany
and the other countries that join, this proposal represents the
first concrete step towards a European federation,
imperative for the preservation of peace."
When Germany agreed to join the The European Coal and Steel
Community according to the Schuman Plan in 1951, the ongoing
dismantling of German industry was halted and some of the
restrictions on German industrial output were lifted. West Germany
joined the The European Coal and Steel Community alongside
Italy , Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands while Britain
refused, on grounds of national sovereignty.
In 1952, Jean Monnet became the first president of the High
Authority and with this the last civilian production limitations
placed on German industry were lifted, and the role of the
International Authority of the Ruhr was taken over by the The
European Coal and Steel Community.
The EU's first attempt to impose its government onto an
unwilling people – defeated by a referendum
After years of attempting to annex the Ruhr and forbidding
opposition to the plan to be expressed in elections, there followed an
attempt to turn the Saar Protectorate into a "European territory".
The Saar was to have been governed by statute supervised by a
European Commissioner reporting to the Council of Ministers of the
Western European Union
It was rejected by a referendum in 1955.
Britiain will get its chance to regain its right to self determination in
the referendum on June 23rd 2016.